The case of nairobi national park, nairobi susan mbithe matiku durgat namusonge yiminyi dept. The tourism industry is a major employer throughout the region, directly supporting nearly 700,000 jobs and another 2. Seasonality is defined as a temporal imbalance in the phenomenon of tourism, which may be expressed in terms of dimensions of such elements as number of visitors, expenditure of visitors, traffic on highways and other forms of transportation, employment and admissions to attractions. The study of tourism and seasonality is largely attributed to barons 1975 seminal and much quoted study, representing the first major attempt to identify the principal contributing components to seasonality and the role of periodicities in influencing demand. Seasonality is a characteristic of a time series in which the data experiences regular and predictable changes that recur every calendar year. Tourism and hospitality industry 2014, congress proceedings trends in tourism and hospitality industry 3 and social trends. This is vital when planning tourism and gives a more complete picture of seasonality and the distribution of. To challenge seasonality or to work within its constraints is a destination management issue that faces tourism planners throughout the world. Overview and characteristics of tourism seasonality in ohrid in. Seasonality causes the fluctuation in tourists and visitor numbers to a destination. Tourism in mauritius the ministry of tourism and external communications has adopted a customercentric approach with a view to rejuvenating the tourism industry and repositioning mauritius as a leading island destination. Identify key issues in the tourism industry that are in direct relation to seasonal shifts in tourism demand. Seasonality in tourism has traditionally been regarded as a major problem which needs to be overcome, but relatively little research has been conducted on the patterns or causes of this phenomenon.
It makes sense that weather plays a huge part in seasonality in the hotel industry. Nevertheless, almost all the studies focus on climate and institutional reasons. Identify strategies in north atlantic islands and other locations that have been employed both successfully and unsuccessfully to alleviate seasonality. The industry has a very significant impact on the society and the degree of effect it generates is analyzed based on the extent of seasonality arrivals and on the volume of tourists that visit a certain region at any given time. Understanding seasonality in the hotel industry by. Galloway and barry omahony and anaya mcmurray, year2008.
A method to analyse seasonality in the distribution of. As we hit the summer high season for most western countries, i thought it might be a good time to think about the challenges of seasonal occupation for tourism destinations. Analysis of negative aspects of seasonality in tourism employment revealed that respondents achieved the highest agreement on the statement that it reduces interest in working in tourism industry, decreases attractiveness of employment in tourism and has a negative impact on all job positions in tourism enterprises regardless of the management. Pdf seasonality in tourism causes, implications and. Tourists who had come to taiwan from 1981 to 2016 mainly came from asia, followed by the americas and europe. The modern tourism industry is one of the fastestgrowing and extremely powerful in the international business sector. Implications of global climate change for tourism flows. Seasonality in the tourism industry v abstract seasonality is a concept that is well studied and documented in the tourism literature. Tourism employment in canada is profiled and its seasonality examined in atlantic canada, where seasonal tourism employment is common. Seasonality is a phenomenon that significantly impacts the tourism industry. Analysis of trends and seasonality in the tourism industry. Seasonal variation in demand is a reality for most tourism destinations.
Economically, ecologically and socially it can have many negative influences on a destination, but at. Being ubiquitous, all tourism enterprises and regions are impacted by seasonality whether severely or mildly. Assistant lecturer university department of professional studies university split, croatia tourism is one of the biggest and fasted growing industries in the world, but it is characterised by seasonality. There are several tourist destinations across the world and in every country the issue of seasonality has become a matter of significant concern. Higham and higham and hinch 2001 highlighted that the organised mass tourism in destinations, as the. Seasonality in tourism demand statistics explained.
Impacts and strategies of seasonality in the tourism. The phenomenon of seasonality affects every tourist destination in the world to some extent. Seasonality and its related social, economic and environmental impacts is a major issue for the tourism industry. The study provides important tools for analysing seasonality in the distribution of tourists on three levels. This study employs the x arimaseats method to tourism market in taiwan. The hotel industry is characterized by seasonality, which plays a major role in determining customer behavior.
Problems of seasonality in caribbean tourism are discussed from different perspectives. Travel and tourism industry is one of the rapidly growing industries in the united states. What seasonality means for the hotel industry clc lodging. Pdf the impact of seasonality on tourism and hospitality. In asian area, tourists from mainland china account for the highest percentage, followed by hong kong and japan, whose. The data for the report were produced in collaboration between researchers, students, the tourism industry and the public sector, and further analysed by the international research team. Seasonality presents a number of issues that require special attention and strategies.
Seasonality is a highly essential factor as far as the tourism industry across the world is concerned. Pdf causes and implication of seasonality in tourism. Some aspects of tourism, seasonality and local labour markets. Seasonality in the food and beverage service industry a. The causes of seasonality have been researched in recent years 6, especially the seasonality rates in europe. Any predictable change or pattern in a time series. None the less because of the nature of the industry, it is filled with challenges on how to encourage visitors to stay longer and spend more money in the regions, and most importantly how to encourage tourists to visit a broader area than the main attractions in the city center. Seasonality in melaka tourism industry 8 august 2016 seasonality in tourism demand is common among all sectors which involve in the industry and become a focal issue, particularly in the peripheral destinations and areas with four seasons.
Seasonality is a measurable feature of tourism since. Plan ahead when you know destination markets are experiencing their most desirable weather, or you will pay the price. Ecological factors in this case, seasonality is just what it sounds like. The tourist industry is evolving in a very competitive world and in order to continue to.
What do you mean by seasonality in tourism answers. The methodology of this work includes qualitative case study including semistructured interviewing, participant observation and desk study engaged into triangulation technique. The definition,causes and effeect of the seasonal tourism created using powtoon. Impacts and strategies this report examines the concept of seasonality, with a focus on australia. When taking into account the duration nights spent rather than the number of trips, seasonality was more pronounced. Seasonality is an important factor in the tourism industry. There are many strategies that are used to address the effects of seasonal. Despite the recognized importance of seasonality for tourism businesses, there has been a distinct lack of studies undertaken in the past that discuss the impact of seasonality on alpine accommodation resorts, and more specifically that focus on an australian location. Seasonality in tourism has a profound impact on the management of human resources in organizations operating in a seasonal context. Seasonality factors are divided broadly between natural factors e.
Seasonality is a phenomenon that affects many economic sectors, with the tourism industry being one of the most strongly impacted. Since seasonality has long been recognized as one of the most critical problems in the tourism industry, many studies have been conducted to investigate its reasons. This article focuses on the tourist accommodation sector in the european union eu member states, candidate and efta countries and looks at the seasonality of arrivals and nights spent in accommodation establishments as well as the seasonality of the turnover and the employment in this specific tourism industry. None the less because of the nature of the industry, it is filled with challenges on how to encourage visitors to stay longer and spend more money in the regions, and most importantly how to encourage tourists to visit a broader area than the main attractions in. A subject that for many destinations, is as alluring and allusive as the holy grail.
Based on the data, the research group formulated recommendations for set procedures for the issues of tourism seasonality. This disparity in the flow of activity limits economic expansion in the. Seasonality is defined as a temporal imbalance in the phenomenon of tourism, which may be expressed in terms of dimensions of such elements as. Implications of global climate change for tourism flows and seasonality bas amelung, sarah nicholls, and david viner journal of travel research 2007 45. Seasons are categorized as low, green, and highpeak, with each associated with. The high level of human involvement in the delivery of services places a great emphasis on the role of human recourses as through the right attitude of employees quality can.
In particular, seasonality affects the number of tourists to a region and therefore can threaten the viability of businesses in a region. Tourism seasonality can be defined as temporary variations in the number of visitors, expenditure, road traffic, and other forms of transport, as well as in employment and access to tourist attractions, etc. The impact of seasonality on tourism and hospitality operations in the alpine region of new south wales, australia. The paper begins with a discussion of the characteristics of seasonality and develops a methodology to study the phenomenon in more detail. Seasonality in tourism activity is not a particular characteristic of a single destination or. Impacts and strategies of seasonality in the tourism industry abstract. Impact of tourism seasonality on hrm in hotels tourism essay. The lowest seasonality was found in ireland where this ratio was only 1. Seasonality in melaka tourism industry essay sample. Seasonality and efficiency of the hotel industry in the. I was recently invited to a conference organized by the unwto addressing the issue of seasonality of tourism destinations. It has been viewed as a major problem for the tourism industry and has been held responsible. A seasonal industry is activity within an economic sector in which the majority of operations take place during only part of the year, usually within a period of half a year or less in some cases, as with agriculture, this limitation may relate to climate or other forces of nature.
The tourism industry as a general and in particular resorts depend on the seasonal employment as it is a prerequisite to deliver customer service ainsworth and purss,2009. A model for managing seasonality in employment is proposed as a continuum. Seasonality is one of the significant features in tourism market. In the context of india, the tourism industry is growing to have vast potential for generating employment and producing large amount of foreign exchange. Papers 1 and 2 give an hoteliers and an airlines viewpoints.1448 1455 534 1032 174 1321 352 249 390 1451 60 1081 1170 1369 1248 270 100 1519 1506 1383 552 483 716 891 332 637 1269 1455 112 156 173 21 204 1245 1199 1021 939 1210 325 1493 745 638 1280 1334